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Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-β1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous

Damage to the Skin Barrier

A healthy skin barrier is one of your most important protections against disease. Healthy skin has a strong resistance to damage and irritation. When the skin barrier begins to break down, your body becomes open to:

  • bacterial infections
  • viral infections
  • fungal infections
  • allergic sensitivity responses
  • the start of skin ulcers (diabetic, bedsores, venous stasis)
  • eczema
  • irritant dermatitis
  • slower skin repair and more rapid aging
  • skin disfigurement
  • blotches and rashes

For example, a person might have a sensitivity to wool clothing. If the skin barrier is healthy, the wool never reaches the reactive immune cells (Langerhans cells) in the skin. Sensitivity to bacterial infections will be markedly reduced with an adequate skin barrier.

Conversely, soldiers fighting in wet, muddy environments suffer from serious skin problems and a plethora of skin infections, eczema, and rashes. Since a damaged skin barrier losses water rapidly, the skin can become dry, flaky, cracked and inflamed which predisposes the skin to infection from wart viruses and bacteria.

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Development of Common Skin Lesions

In addition to the general loosening or "sagging" of skin as we age, skin growths and lesions become more common. They may range from harmless "seborrheic warts", "liver spots" or "age spots" to skin cancers that require immediate treatment.

Age Spots

Age spots are also called liver spots, lentigo simplex and senile lentigines.

They are flat, gray, brown or black spots that occur on more than 90% of fair-skinned people after age 50.

Age spots range from freckle-size to a few inches in diameter. They are most common on skin areas most exposed to the sun.

True age spots don't become cancerous and require no treatment, but sometimes they look like cancerous skin growths.

They can be lightened with skin-bleaching products or removed. Hydroxy acids and strong copper peptides often slowly remove these lesions.

Portrait of Grandmother

Actinic Keratosis

Actinic keratosis are gray-to-pink-to-red, scaly spots called actinic keratosis.

These usually occur on your face, scalp and the backs of hands. They start as flat lesions that feel like sandpaper, but later may develop a hard, wart-like surface.

Between 1% to 3% can progress to skin cancers within 10 to 20 years if ignored, and may need to be removed surgically.

In the early stages they can be removed by applying a chemotherapy cream or freezing with liquid nitrogen. Hydroxy acids and strong copper peptides often slowly remove these lesions.

These should not be confused with skin melanomas which do not appear to be associated with sunlight exposure.

See Suntan Science for more information on sunlight and cancer and the possible anti-cancer effects of sunlight exposure.



Actinic Keratosis Healed with Copper Peptides

click to enlarge

What cannot be seen in the photograph: The Actinic Keratosis area was very raised and crusty. Currently, not only has the lesion flattened considerably, at the surface the cells appear much better organized.

Results achieved with the use of a high concentration GHK copper peptide serum and micro needling. Microneedling consisted of three sessions with a .5ml micro needle every 6 weeks.

Time period: Approximately 5 months - "Before" photo was taken in January of 2014 / "After" photo was taken in May of 2014 right before the 4th needling session.

Photos courtesy of DianaYvonne

Seborrheic Keratosis

These yellow to brown to black raised waxy-looking spots or wart-like growths look like they were stuck on the skin surface.

Normally, seborrheic keratoses don't become cancerous, however they can resemble skin cancer and should be checked by a physician.

Sometimes they may bleed if irritated by rubbing. They are more common in fair-skinned people past age 40.

They are not cancerous and commonly occur with aging. They can be easily removed by freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryosurgery), scraping (curettage) or burning with an electric current (electrosurgery).

Hydroxy acids and strong copper peptides often slowly remove these lesions.

Cherry Angiomas

These are harmless, small, bright red domes created by dilated blood vessels. They occur in more than 85 percent of people by middle-age, usually on the torso. Electrosurgery or laser therapy removes these spots.

"Broken Capillaries" or Telangiectosia

These dilated facial blood vessels are usually related to sun damage. They respond to the same treatments as angiomes.

Skin Tags

These dilated facial blood vessels are usually related to sun damage. They respond to the same treatments as angiomes.

They are usually harmless, but can be removed by cutting, cryosurgery or electrosurgery.

Hydroxy acids and strong copper peptides often slowly remove these lesions.

Shingles/Herpes Zoster

Shingles is an inflammation of a nerve caused by the same virus as chicken pox. Early symptoms are localized pain, headache or fatigue.

Shingles can affect people of all ages, but is more common and painful in older adults.

Varicose Veins

These are enlarged leg veins that appear blue and bulging. They are common in older individuals.

The veins become twisted and swollen when blood returning to the heart against gravity flows back into the veins through a faulty valve. This condition is rarely dangerous.

Laser therapy may remove smaller varicosities. More severe cases can be treated with surgery or injections.

Skin Damaging Eczema and Dermatitis

The terms dermatitis and eczema are often used synonymously and authorities generally disagree on a differences in the two terms.

The word eczema is used to describe all kinds of superficial skin inflammation characterized by redness, blistering, oozing, edema, scaling, crusting, brownish-lesions, thickened skin, and itching skin conditions.

Examples of eczema include dermatitis, allergic contact eczema, seborrheic eczema, and nummular eczema.

These condition may cause skin disfigurement, rashes, and uneven pigmentation.

painting of a woman with eczema

Atopic Dermatitis or Atopic Eczema

The word "atopic" describes a group of allergic or associated diseases that often affect several members of a family.

These families may have allergies such as hay fever and asthma but also have skin eruptions called atopic dermatitis. While most people with atopic dermatitis have family members with similar problems, 20% may be the only one in their family bothered by this problem.

Atopic dermatitis is very common in all parts of the world. The skin on the feet and hands can become very itchy and can be produce visual skin blemishes and marks.

Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is caused by allergens or irritants --caustics, strong soaps, detergents, organic solvents, vacuum cleaner dust, and topical drugs.

Your dermatologist will use patch-tests to provide evidence of sensitivity to various allergens and irritants.

"Housewives' eczema," is frequently seen in housewives and other "wet workers". It is worsened by washing dishes, clothes, and babies, and repeated exposure to detergents, water or prolonged sweating under rubber gloves.

Portrait of a Woman with terrible Skin

Dandruff, Seborrhea and Seborrheic Dermatitis

Various dermatitises can produce skin damage and undesirable skin lesions.

Dandruff is characterized by excessive scaling on the scalp without redness. There is no skin inflammation.

Seborrhea describes excessive oiliness of the skin, especially of the scalp and face. There is no redness or scaling. Patients with seborrhea may later develop seborrheic dermatitis.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

The signs of seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammation in areas having the greatest number of sebaceous or oil glands.

The scalp, sides of the nose, eyebrows, eyelids, and the skin behind the ears and middle of the chest are the most common sites.

The affected skin is reddish and can have greasy-looking, often yellow "scales" on the skin. Itching may occur but is usually mild.

Special shampoos are used to successfully treat seborrheic dermatitis, but it tends to recur.

Seborrheic dermatitis is more common in people with oily skin or hair. There is some evidence that a skin infection with a yeast-like organism play a role in this disorder and antibiotics to control such yeast are being tested for treatment.

Women with Beautiful Skin